I just posted the slides for “Groupoidification and 2-Linearization”, the colloquium talk I gave at Dalhousie when I was up in Halifax last week. I also gave a seminar talk in which I described the quantum harmonic oscillator and extended TQFT as examples of these processes, which covered similar stuff to the examples in a talk I gave at Ottawa, as well as some more categorical details.

Now, in the previous post, I was talking about different notions of the “state” of a system – all of which are in some sense “dual to observables”, although exactly what sense depends on which notion you’re looking at. Each concept has its own particular “type” of thing which represents a state: an element-of-a-set, a function-on-a-set, a vector-in-(projective)-Hilbert-space, and a functional-on-operators. In light of the above slides, I wanted to continue with this little bestiary of ontologies for “states” and mention the versions suggested by groupoidification.

State as Generalized Stuff Type

This is what groupoidification introduces: the idea of a state in Span(Gpd). As I said in the previous post, the key concepts behind this program are state, symmetry, and history. “State” is in some sense a logical primitive here – given a bunch of “pure” states for a system (in the harmonic oscillator, you use the nonnegative integers, representing n-photon energy states of the oscillator), and their local symmetries (the n-particle state is acted on by the permutation group on n elements), one defines a groupoid.

So at a first approximation, this is like the “element of a set” picture of state, except that I’m now taking a groupoid instead of a set. In a more general language, we might prefer to say we’re talking about a stack, which we can think of as a groupoid up to some kind of equivalence, specifically Morita equivalence. But in any case, the image is still that a state is an object in the groupoid, or point in the stack which is just generalizing an element of a set or point in configuration space.

However, what is an “element” of a set S? It’s a map into S from the terminal element in \mathbf{Sets}, which is “the” one-element set – or, likewise, in \mathbf{Gpd}, from the terminal groupoid, which has only one object and its identity morphism. However, this is a category where the arrows are set maps. When we introduce the idea of a “history “, we’re moving into a category where the arrows are spans, A \stackrel{s}{\leftarrow} X \stackrel{t}{\rightarrow} B (which by abuse of notation sometimes gets called X but more formally (X,s,t)). A span represents a set/groupoid/stack of histories, with source and target maps into the sets/groupoids/stacks of states of the system at the beginning and end of the process represented by X.

Then we don’t have a terminal object anymore, but the same object 1 is still around – only the morphisms in and out are different. Its new special property is that it’s a monoidal unit. So now a map from the monoidal unit is a span 1 \stackrel{!}{\rightarrow} X \stackrel{\Phi}{\rightarrow} B. Since the map on the left is unique, by definition of “terminal”, this really just given by the functor \Phi, the target map. This is a fibration over B, called here \Phi for “phi”-bration, but this is appropriate, since it corresponds to what’s usually thought of as a wavefunction \phi.

This correspondence is what groupoidification is all about – it has to do with taking the groupoid cardinality of fibres, where a “phi”bre of \Phi is the essential preimage of an object b \in B – everything whose image is isomorphic to b. This gives an equivariant function on B – really a function of isomorphism classes. (If we were being crude about the symmetries, it would be a function on the quotient space – which is often what you see in real mechanics, when configuration spaces are given by quotients by the action of some symmetry group).

In the case where B is the groupoid of finite sets and bijections (sometimes called \mathbf{FinSet_0}), these fibrations are the “stuff types” of Baez and Dolan. This is a groupoid with something of a notion of “underlying set” – although a forgetful functor U: C \rightarrow \mathbf{FinSet_0} (giving “underlying sets” for objects in a category C) is really supposed to be faithful (so that C-morphisms are determined by their underlying set map). In a fibration, we don’t necessarily have this. The special case corresponds to “structure types” (or combinatorial species), where X is a groupoid of “structured sets”, with an underlying set functor (actually, species are usually described in terms of the reverse, fibre-selecting functor \mathbf{FinSet_0} \rightarrow \mathbf{Sets}, where the image of a finite set consists of the set of all “$\Phi$-structured” sets (such as: “graphs on set S“, or “trees on S“, etc.) The fibres of a stuff type are sets equipped with “stuff”, which may have its own nontrivial morphisms (for example, we could have the groupoid of pairs of sets, and the “underlying” functor \Phi selects the first one).

Over a general groupoid, we have a similar picture, but instead of having an underlying finite set, we just have an “underlying B-object”. These generalized stuff types are “states” for a system with a configuration groupoid, in Span(\mathbf{Gpd}). Notice that the notion of “state” here really depends on what the arrows in the category of states are – histories (i.e. spans), or just plain maps.

Intuitively, such a state is some kind of “ensemble”, in statistical or quantum jargon. It says the state of affairs is some jumble of many configurations (which we apparently should see as histories starting from the vacuous unit 1), each of which has some “underlying” pure state (such as energy level, or what-have-you). The cardinality operation turns this into a linear combination of pure states by defining weights for each configuration in the ensemble collected in X.

2-State as Representation

A linear combination of pure states is, as I said, an equivariant function on the objects of B. It’s one way to “categorify” the view of a state as a vector in a Hilbert space, or map from \mathbb{C} (i.e. a point in the projective Hilbert space of lines in the Hilbert space H = \mathbb{C}[\underline{B}]), which is really what’s defined by one of these ensembles.

The idea of 2-linearization is to categorify, not a specific state \phi \in H, but the concept of state. So it should be a 2-vector in a 2-Hilbert space associated to B. The Hilbert space H was some space of functions into $mathbb{C}$, which we categorify by taking instead of a base field, a base category, namely \mathbf{Vect}_{\mathbb{C}}. A 2-Hilbert space will be a category of functors into \mathbf{Vect}_{\mathbb{C}} – that is, the representation category of the groupoid B.

(This is all fine for finite groupoids. In the inifinte case, there are some issues: it seems we really should be thinking of the 2-Hilbert space as category of representations of an algebra. In the finite case, the groupoid algebra is a finite dimensional C*-algebra – that is, just a direct sum (over iso. classes of objects) of matrix algebras, which are the group algebras for the automorphism groups at each object. In the infinite dimensional world, you probable should be looking at the representations of the von Neumann algebra completion of the C*-algebra you get from the groupoid. There are all sorts of analysis issues about measurability that lurk in this area, but they don’t really affect how you interpret “state” in this picture, so I’ll skip it.)

A “2-state”, or 2-vector in this Hilbert space, is a representation of the groupoid(-algebra) associated to the system. The “pure” states are irreducible representations – these generate all the others under the operations of the 2-Hilbert space (“sum”, “scalar product”, etc. in their 2-vector space forms). Now, an irreducible representation of a von Neumann algebra is called a “superselection sector” for a quantum system. It’s playing the role of a pure state here.

There’s an interesting connection here to the concept of state as a functional on a von Neumann algebra. As I described in the last post, the GNS representation associates a representation of the algebra to a state. In fact, the GNS representation is irreducible just when the state is a pure state. But this notion of a superselection sector makes it seem that the concept of 2-state has a place in its own right, not just by this correspondence.

So: if a quantum system is represented by an algebra \mathcal{A} of operators on a Hilbert space H, that representation is a direct sum (or direct integral, as the case may be) of irreducible ones, which are “sectors” of the theory, in that any operator in \mathcal{A} can’t take a vector out of one of these “sectors”. Physicists often associate them with conserved quantities – though “superselection” sectors are a bit more thorough: a mere “selection sector” is a subspace where the projection onto it commutes with some subalgebra of observables which represent conserved quantities. A superselection sector can equivalently be defined as a subspace whose corresponding projection operator commutes with EVERYTHING in \mathcal{A}. In this case, it’s because we shouldn’t have thought of the representation as a single Hilbert space: it’s a 2-vector in \mathbb{Rep}(\mathcal{A}) – but as a direct integral of some Hilbert bundle that lives on the space of irreps. Those projections are just part of the definition of such a bundle. The fact that \mathcal{A} acts on this bundle fibre-wise is just a consequence of the fact that the total H is a space of sections of the “2-state”. These correspond to “states” in usual sense in the physical interpretation.

Now, there are 2-linear maps that intermix these superselection sectors: the ETQFT picture gives nice examples. Such a map, for example, comes up when you think of two particles colliding (drawn in that world as the collision of two circles to form one circle). The superselection sectors for the particles are labelled by (in one special case) mass and spin – anyway, some conserved quantities. But these are, so to say, “rest mass” – so there are many possible outcomes of a collision, depending on the relative motion of the particles. So these 2-maps describe changes in the system (such as two particles becoming one) – but in a particular 2-Hilbert space, say \mathbb{Rep}(X) for some groupoid X describing the current system (or its algebra), a 2-state \Phi is a representation of the of the resulting system). A 2-state-vector is a particular representation. The algebra \mathcal{A} can naturally be seen as a subalgebra of the automorphisms of \Phi.

So anyway, without trying to package up the whole picture – here are two categorified takes on the notion of state, from two different points of view.

I haven’t, here, got to the business about Tomita flows coming from states in the von Neumann algebra sense: maybe that’s to come.